In Persian, the term mellat found currency as the equivalent of the term “nation” in the 19th century. . The modern concept of “nation” originated from the concept of religious community (mellat) in two phases: first was constructed the notion of “Iranian Muslim nation” by addition of “Iran” to the traditional notion of Muslim religious community (mellat-e Mosalm?n) to signify the Iranian component of the religious community (mellat-e Mosalm?n-e Ir?n). The recent history of Iran was divided into two dictatorial regimes which was a monarchy (the Pahlavi dynasty) and the theocracy (the Islamic Republic), which presents different values and different identities. 20th century historiography on nation-state correlation to a large extent has been shaped by politically contentious projects. Persia’s reform movement which was primarily a response of the reforming Persian literati to the challenges of Western powers was instrumental in promoting new ideas of nation and national homeland, which were aspiring to modernize the archaic government offices and adopt modern technology and political structure in order to develop Persia’s capability to resist Western encroachment. The fundamental class structure of Iranian society has its roots in pre-Islamic times, when Zoroastrian clergy tried, not very successfully, to enforce a caste system something like that of Hinduism. Although class lines have never been rigid in Islamic Iran, there are distinct class patterns characteristic of medieval and even modern Iranian society. We can conclude that the importance of the turning point, which is the Islamic revolution, triggered the development of the Iranian literature and draw a clear line between the literature before and after 1979.
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