ABSTRACT: In the era of Persian literature when we talk about the history and evolution of Persian literary works, Ayar-e-Danish is amongst those famous literary works which has gained its popularity in the entire world. Ayar-e-Danish was written by Shaikh Abul Fazl Allami in 1588 A.d during the reign of Akbar which was considered as the golden period in the history of the Mughals. This literary work is translation of the famous Sanskrit book “Panchatantra” which is an ancient India collection of animal fables and often considered as a common folklore in India. There were many translations of the Panchatantra before Ayar-e-Danish and this article will highlight the various translations of this folklore and later it will elaborate the Ayar-e-Danish in a large scale. HOW THE PANCHATANTRA JOURNEY STARTED IN IRAN? Panchatantra is the famous book written by Pandit Vishnu Sharma. This book was first translated in the Pahlavi language by Hakeem Burzoy in the year 1550 titled as Kartak-wa-Damnak. The Arabic translation of this book was done by Abd-allah ibn al-Muqaffa and it was given the title of Kalilah-wa-Dimnah. In the Kalila wa Dimnah, it is believed he deliberately used characters from other cultural contexts to suggest the need for political reform in the Abbasid period.Rudaki translated the Panchatantra in a poetic form under the order of the Sultan of the Samanid period, Abul Fazl Muhammad Balami. During the Ghaznavid period, Nasurullah Munshi Shirazi translated this famous folklore which is quite evident by the name of Kalila-wa-Dimnah Behramshahi.
During the reign of Sultan Hussain Mirza, this folklore was translated by Mullah Waiz Hussain Kashfih and this translation was given the title of “Anwar-e-Suhaili”.After Anwar-e-Suhaili, this folkfore was translated by Abul Fazl in the reign of Akbar deriving a title of “Ayar-e-Danish” which is considered as the most recent and most relevant translation of the Panchatantra.
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