Man is a social being who lives in harmony with his fellow beings. But the animal instinct which is intrinsic in man forces him to violate other people’s rights which disturb the peace and order of the society. Hence different ways of protecting human rights are adopted. An accountable Parliament, an Executive who is ultimately subject to the authority of elected representatives and an independent and impartial judiciary do the needful. Despite their effectiveness, the violation of rights especially of the vulnerable section of society i.e. women and children continues. Hence it was realized that there is a need for other mechanisms apart from these basic institutions whose establishment and strengthening will enhance the excising mechanisms. Equality for women is integral to human rights.
The United Nations Charter adopted by world leaders in 1945 provides for equal rights for all as its fundamental principle and necessitates it as a responsibility of all States. As per Census of India 2011, women constitute 48.46 per cent of the total population. Hence women are also an equally important human resource.
After attaining independence the Constitution of India which was adopted on 26 November 1949 and enacted on 26th January 1950, also contains provisions for their empowerment development, protection and participation. Apart from this India is a party to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1993 (CEDAW ) Yet, women continue to experience blatant violation of their rights.
The intention of different types of governments in differently natured political systems to abide by the International Human Rights norms exhibits itself in the establishment of NHRCs. Therefore these are supported by the international community, especially the UN bodies.
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